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Two books dealing with the subject of angiosperm evolution and paleofloristics (Dilcher 2010, Friis et al. Dispersal of these floras from the tropics poleward has been proposed (Axelrod 1959). (2005) suggesting a monophyletic Mesozoic origin of a basal clade of flowering plants, which is based on estimates derived from cp DNA data. I also built a case and presented evidence in the second essay that some of the candidate gymnosperm groups with bisexual protoflowers are presently known only from detached taeniopteroid sporophylls and foliar tepals of Ginkgo-like spur shoots, and subtending gigantopteroid megaphylls. These studies are congruent with Bayesian molecular-clock simulations computed by Beaulieu et al. " (Abstract Scope and Conclusions, page 145, Becker 2016, item [in brackets] is mine). After integrating evidence as a whole with our results, the resulting scenario suggests that there is nothing particularly mysterious about the diversification of angiosperms during Cretaceous times or how it is reflected in the fossil record. Does this overlooked and thoughtful comparison merit further exploration? "The male structures [of Sanmiguelia] appear to be strobili with sessile pairs of pollen sacs, more reminiscent of ginkgophytes than angiosperms, and the smooth monosulcate pollen has no angiosperm features" (page 319, J. Sanmiguelia lewisii was an innovative Triassic plant having palm-like leaves (Brown 1956, Ash 1976) with flowers and angiosperm-like reproductive modules not unlike the monocotyledonous angiosperm Veratrum (Cornet 1986, 1989). This is an unstudied chronocline with potentially profound implications toward the idea of paraphyletic transitions in diverging seed plants at the base of the angiosperm stem(s) that straddle the PT. Triassic angiosperm fossils of detached "dicot-like" leaves described as Pannaulika triassica are known (Cornet 1993). Fossils of several other enigmatic flowering plants have been recovered from Mesozoic rocks but reproductive details and the morphology of whole plants are unclear due to problems with poor preservation and uncertain stratigraphic control (Müller 1981, G. There is a significant increase in the number of orders and genera of fossil flowering plants by the Aptian Age of the Gallic Epoch of the Cretaceous Period, based on data in Table 5.
Specimen IU15713-3429 was first photographed by the author in 1981 with the permission of Professor David L. The same specimen was illustrated in Figure 1 [as "D"] on Page 512 of J. A Mesozoic radiation of angiosperms is cast within the framework of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group proposed classification (APG III 2009, Chase and Reveal 2009, APG IV 2016). (B) Superposition with the homeodomain of Drosophila engrailed bound to DNA [yellow, PBD-id: 1hdd], where the centre of recognition helix α3 inserts into the major groove." Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: The European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) Journal, Hamès, C., D. A possible paraphyletic Paleozoic origin of angiosperms is incongruent with proposals by Leebens-Mack et al. Ancestors of putative paraphyletic grades of angiosperms might have been Permo-carboniferous or Permo-triassic gymnosperms with hermaphroditic (bisexual) strobili. 2008) suggests deep conservation of the developmental tool kit of vascular plants. "While the amazing conservation of the major floral identity [ABCDE] program is being unravelled by analysing floral homeotic gene function and expression, we are only just beginning to understand the evolution of the gene network governing the organ identity genes ... cit.) should understand that petriellalean cupules are incompatible with tool kit models of floral development from shoot apical meristems (SAMs). We anticipate that the evident question-whether beyond the mere ecological similarity there may be phylogenetic relationships linking Petriellales with angiosperms-will be answered once more detailed information about their reproductive biology becomes available" (page 1074, Discussion, Ecology and Paleoenvironment, Bomfleur et al. Caytoniales, Corystospermales, Doyleales, and Petriellales probably had nothing to do with the evolution of stem-group flowering plants or the origin of angiosperms. Is the bitegmic ovule an angiosperm-specific character? Conversely, can ategmic ovules develop by fusion of integuments? fossil-based, molecular, phylogenetic and paleobiogeographic studies) and current viewpoints about the explosive Cretaceous diversification of angiosperms. Of all the enigmatic seed plants of the early Mesozoic Era, Sanmiguelia lewisii has attracted the most attention by students of angiosperm paleobiology (S. Crane (1985) suggested that some populations of late Paleozoic Vojnovskyales might have survived the end-Permian extinction reappearing in the Triassic rock record as the seed plant Sanmiguelia. The problem is also semantic as expressed in conflicting opinions on the definition of angiosperms, flowers, and from opposing ideas on supposed character homologies with organs of Paleozoic seed plants. Doyle's earlier critique of Cornet's published studies of the morphology and anatomy of Sanmiguelia lewisii, before publishing the Nature Plants "palaeobotanical redux." Uncanny similarities of early Mesozoic seed plant Sanmiguelia lewisii (Cornet 1986, 1989) with Paleozoic Vojnovskyales pointed out by Crane (1985) require confirmation by phylogenetic analysis of reproductive and vegetative characters gleaned from detailed anatomical studies of more fossilized remains to be collected. The Archaemagnoliidae is lumped with the Magnoliidae. Molecular-phylogenetic studies suggest that differentiation of flowering plants into a stem and crown group of the Mesozoic Era is feasible (Hilu et al.
Despite animated discussion by Cascales-Miñana et al. The slab pictured to the left was unearthed from the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Formation of North America. This idea is supported by reanalysis of nucleic acid data suggesting a late Triassic age for the flowering plant crown group (Stephen A. More field- and laboratory work is needed with focus on rock layers Permo-triassic in age to find and describe fossils of reproductive spur- (short-) shoots, and detached and shed angiospermous organs and foliar remains. Prevailing hypotheses, based on evidence both from living and from fossil plants, emphasize that the earliest angiosperms were plants of small stature with rapid life cycles that exploited disturbed habitats in open or perhaps understorey conditions ..." The preceding statement is quoted from the abstract of a letter on page 551 of E. The right-hand image is reproduced from Figure 6 on page 2634 of Hamès et al. Specifically, our results indicate that the heterodimerization between DEF-like and GLO-like proteins was already present in the [most common recent ancestor] MRCA of extant angiosperms and was virtually never rewired" (page 1438, Discussion, Conservation of the MADS-domain protein interaction pattern during angiosperm evolution, Melzer et al. Leafy protein regulates gibberellin (GA)-mediated transition to flowering and downstream expression of MIKC-type MADS-box genes that determine floral organ identity (Glover 2014, Glover et al. The previous statement is quoted from page 2635 of C. A fourth, ecologically-grounded soil nutrient-feedback hypothesis is advanced by Berendse and Scheffer (2009). Despite possible problems with the chain of custody of this fossil, the purported place of collection including rock outcrops in the vicinity, have been dated using methods to constrain the supposed age of the Haifanggou and Lanqi formations (S-C. (2017) neglected to develop older ideas on possible relationships of Triassic sanmiguelias with Permo-carboniferous Vojnovskyales, or to discuss morphological similarities of Sanmiguelia lewisii with monocots. "Our data suggest that the interactions governing flower development in core eudicots were already established at the base of extant angiosperms and remained highly conserved since then. No, when biochemical and evo-devo models of cone and floral organization posited by Baum and Hileman (2006), Theißen and Melzer (2007), and Melzer et al. Recent hypotheses propose that the earliest angiosperms may have been small, woody shrubs that colonized disturbed sites in the damp understory of humid forests ... Based on gene expression data and studies of plant development in extant plant species (R. (1), Pollen Type 1, specimen A, LM image (high focus)" (Hochuli and Feist-Burkhardt 2013): micrograph is reproduced by permission from Professor Peter A. Table 5 summarizes the stratigraphic distribution and microfossil, megafossil, and mesofossil history of the subclasses of flowering plants according to Cronquist (1981). Although one solution to this problem would be to restrict the systematic analysis of angiosperm megafossils to taxa known from both reproductive and vegetative organs, this approach would greatly restrict information about the flora as a whole, given the dominance of isolated vegetative organs in the megafossil record." The above statement is from page 3 of Upchurch and Dilcher (1990), Cenomanian Angiosperm Leaf Megafossils, Dakota Formation, Rose Creek Locality, Jefferson County, Southeastern Nebraska, U. Separate columns are devoted to extant and extinct taxa.
Soltis, among others, Caytoniales, Corystospermales, Doyleales, and Petriellales probably had nothing to do with the "mysterious origin of flowering plants" (this phrase is quoted from page 1074, Discussion, Ecology and Paleoenvironment, Bomfleur et al. Simply put, cone and floral tool kits are too conserved i.e. A clump of Joinvillea plicata (Joinvilleaceae, Poales, Lilianae) indigenous to Viti Levu Island of the South Pacific Ocean is pictured to the left. Phylogenomics suggests Cretaceous co-radiations of Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, and angiosperms. Yes, though some paleontologists have yet to embrace the concept. Howarth, (2015), Adaptation in flower form: a comparative evodevo approach, New Phytologist 206: 74-80. (2017) state: "Of the several transcription families that are known to play a role in flower development and morphogenesis (e.g. Flowering plants are the most successful group of land plants on Earth. (2011) that occurred in the common ancestor of eudicots and monocots. Here I aim to highlight one key realization of this 'genomics era' in which we find ourselves, namely, that all modern flowering plant genomes derive from processes set in motion by a history of repeated, episodic whole-genome doubling or polyploidy" (page 1753, J. Wendel , American Journal of Botany 102: 1753-1756). The preceding statement is quoted from page 160 of P. Based on models of allopolyploidy, and unsolvable paleobiological problems in pin-pointing zones of sympatry in hybridizing seed plant populations, the origin of flowering plants is a conundrum. Numbered lines at base of photo correspond to levels at which figures of same number are sectioned. 60, ×20 ..." This copyrighted figure was reproduced with written permission from the Editorial Office of the American Journal of Botany. There is brief mention of extant plant biology and phylogenetics to accompany these paleobotanical snapshots. Students should use book chapter bibliographies or Google Scholar to research other titles not listed below. The graphic below is redrawn from APG III (page 108, Figure 1, 2009). A companion to APG III is published as an updated molecular-based phylogeny of flowering plants by D. Molecular-phylogenetic studies of extant flowering plants now incorporate the nuclear gene Xdh (Morton 2011). Middle Triassic magnoliid palynofloras of arid, boreal, and tropical paleoenvironments are also discussed. I also review the literature on the basic biology and molecular evolution of extant basal angiosperms as defined by The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG IV 2016) to include enigmatic monocotyledonous Hydatellaceae (Friis and Crane 2007, Rudall et al. Calibrated molecular-phylogenetic analyses by Eguchi and Tamura (2016) and C. Comprehensive accounts of the past literature on Mesozoic angiosperms are published by Dilcher (1979), Crane et al. Insights into the rapid radiation of crown group flowering plants from the angiosperm stem group based on contrasting molecular-phylogenetic research perspectives are available in numerous reviews (J. Doyle and Donoghue 1993, Magallón and Castillo 2009, Stephen A. There is little doubt that Bayesian computational molecular-clock simulations by Beaulieu et al. Further, the elaborate analyses published by Goremykin et al. regardless of whether Amborella alone is the sister to all other extant angiosperms or whether Amborella Nymphaeales form a clade, one cannot infer the habit or habitat of the first angiosperms based on the morphology of extant taxa" (page 379, Discussion, Drew et al. The genome-scale molecular phylogenetic analyses by Zhenxiang Xi et al. Basal flowering plants sensu Cronquist (1981) belong to Amborellaceae and Trimeniaceae (Laurales), Austrobaileyaceae (Magnoliales), Hydatellales (monocots), Illiciales, and Nymphaeales. Tremendous progress has been made on understanding the anatomy, basic biology, organelle genetics, developmental genetics, ecology, floral genetics, molecular evolution, morphology, natural history, and phylogenetic systematics of ANITA grade basal angiosperms (Parkinson et al.