Dating rituals in ethiopia
Further, they acquired horses and their gada system helped coordinate well equipped Oromo warriors who enabled fellow Oromos to advance and settle into newer regions starting in the 1520s. Between 15, there were waves of wars and struggle between highland Christians, coastal Muslim and polytheist population in the Horn of Africa. The northern, eastern and western movement of the Oromos from the south around 1535 mirrored the large scale expansion by Somalis inland.
The 1500–1800 period also saw relocation of the Amhara people, and helped influence contemporary ethnic politics in Ethiopia.
Another speculated origin, states Barton, for their historic name is from the Muslim tradition, which states that when Muhammad asked them to accept Islam, the chief of this ethnic group said "Gha la" or "no", thus their name "Galla".
The Oromo never called themselves Galla, and resist its use.
Among these were the Gibe region kingdoms of Gera, Gomma, Garo, Gumma, Jimma, Leeqa-Nekemte and Limmu-Ennarea.
The earliest known documented and detailed history of the Oromo people was by the Ethiopian monk Abba Bahrey who wrote Zenahu le Galla in 1593, though the synonymous term Gallas was mentioned in maps After the 16th century, they are mentioned more often, such as in the records left by Abba Pawlos, Joao Bermudes, Jerorimo Lobo, Galawdewos, Sarsa Dengel and others.
After Fra Mauro's mention, there is a profusion of literature about the peoples of this region including the Oromo, particularly mentioning their wars and resistance to religious conversion, primarily by European sea explorers, Christian and Islamic missionaries as well as regional writers.
Fra Mauro's term Galla is the most used term, however, until the early 20th century.
Most of the Oromo people became Christians or Muslims over the centuries, while some retained their traditional beliefs.By the late 16th century, two major Oromo confederations emerged: Afre and Sadaqa, which respectively refer to four and three in their language, with Afre emerging from four older clans, and Sadaqa out of three.According to historian Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst, the migration was one of the consequences of fierce wars of attrition between Christian and Muslim armies in the Horn of Africa region in the 15th and 16th century which killed a lot of people and depopulated the regions near the Galla lands, but also probably a result of droughts in their traditional homelands.This expansion, according to Degu, was a part of Jihad by Somalis as a "means to control the better fertile land and expand Islam; as a result, they managed to control most of what is now Ethiopia as far as the Eritrean Red Sea coasts".These geo-political developments created a competitive conflict between the Oromos and Somalis, in competition for fertile territory and water resources.